Dermatemys mawii publications – this is not comprehensive, as we are adding to the site regularly.


Alvarez del Toro, M., Mittermeier, R.A. and Iverson, J.B. 1979. River turtle in danger. Oryx 15(2): 170-173.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.

Barahona, R., & López, J. (2015). Estructura poblacional de la tortuga blanca, Dermatemys mawii Gray (Testudines, Dermatemydidae), en la Laguna El Perú, Petén, Guatemala. Revista Científica de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, 2(25)

Bienz, A. 1895. Dermatemys mavii Gray: eine osteologische Studie mit Beiträgen zur Kenntniss vom Baue der Schildkröten

Boulenger, G. A. 1889. Catalogue of the chelonians, rhynchocephalians, and crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). order of the Trustees

Buhlmann, K. A., Akre, T. S., Iverson, J. B., Karapatakis, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Georges, A., … & Gibbons, J. W. (2009). A global analysis of tortoise and freshwater turtle distributions with identification of priority conservation areas. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 8(2), 116-149

Campbell, J. 1972. Observations on Central American River Turtles at Fort Worth Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 12: 202–204.

Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and Reptiles of Northern Guatemala, the Yucatán and Belize. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Carr, J. L., Bickham, J. W., & Dean, R. H. 1981. The karyotype and chromosomal banding patterns of the Central American river turtle Dermatemys mawii. Herpetologica, 92-95

Castañeda Moya, F., Lara, O. and Queral-Regil, A. 2000. The herpetofauna of Laguna del Tigre National Park, Peten, Guatemala, with an emphasis on populations of the Morelet’s Crocodile (Corcodylus moreletii). In: B.T. Bestelmeyer and L.E. Alonso (eds). A Biological Assessment of Laguna del Tigre National Park, Petén, Guatemala. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 16: 61-66 and 215-216. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Collins, D. 1999. Belize trip report. Report to the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, Philadelphia, PA.

Cope, E. D. 1865. Third contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 185-198

Davy, C. M., & Fenton, M. B. 2013. Technical note: side-scan sonar enables rapid detection of aquatic reptiles in turbid lotic systems. European journal of wildlife research, 59(1), 123-127

Ernst, C.H. AND Barbour, R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 314 pp.

García, R; R. Balas, J. Soto, V. Espejel, J. Moreira, G. Ponce, V. Ramos, F. Oliva, E. González, H. Tut, K. Tut, T. Xol, P. Xoc, M. Córdova y L. Morales. Distribution and Ecology of the Central America River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii: Dermatemidae) in the Lowland Maya Forest, Guatemala. Wildlife Conservation Society-Guatemala Program; Asociación Balam; Instituto de Ecología A.C. Xalapa, Veracruz, México; Centro de Monitoreo y Evaluación del Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas. Petén, Guatemala, 28 pp.

García Anleu, R., R. Vogt, R. Balas McNab, J. Moreira, G. Ponce Santizo, M. Mérida, G. Ruano, E. González, E. Muñoz, M. Córdova y B. Bosarreyes. 2010. Where Do They Go? Determining the Spatial and Habitat
Requirements of the CA River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii: Dermatemidae) in El Perú Lagoon, Selva Maya of Guatemala.  Report to Turtle Conservation Fund.

Garel, T. 1998. Central American river turtle (Dermatemys mawii). Report to the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

González-Porter, G. P., Hailer, F., Flores-Villela, O., García-Anleu, R., & Maldonado, J. E. 2011. Patterns of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Central American river turtle: human influence since the Mayan age?. Conservation Genetics, 12(5), 1229-1242

Gonzalez-Porter, G. P., Maldonado, J. E., Flores-Villela, O., Vogt, R. C., Janke, A., Fleischer, R. C., & Hailer, F. 2013. Cryptic population structuring and the role of the isthmus of tehuantepec as a gene flow barrier in the critically endangered central american river turtle. PloS one, 8(9), e71668

Gray, J.E. 1847. Description of a new genus of Emydidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1847: 55-56

Gray, J. E. 1864. Additional observations on Dermatemys from Central America. In Proc. Zool. Soc (pp. 125-127).

Groombridge, B. 1982. The IUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book, Part 1: Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynocehapalia. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Guichard Romero, C. A. (2006). Situación actual de las poblaciones de tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii) en el sureste de México. Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecología. Informe final SNIB-CONABIO proyecto no. AS003. México, DF, 32

Holman, J. A. 1964. Observations on dermatemyid and staurotypine turtles from Veracruz, Mexico. Herpetologica, 19(4), 277-279

IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Iverson, J.B. 1992. A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Richmond, Indiana. (Privately published).

Iverson, J.B. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1980. Dermatemydidae. River turtles. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles No. 237: 1-4.

Juárez, D. 2008. Estimación de diferencias morfométricas en la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii) en El Petén. Tesis de Licenciatura en biología. USAC. Guatemala. 96 pp.

Knauss, G. E., W. G. Joyce, T. R. Lyson, and D. Pearson. 2011. A new kinosternoid from the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of North Dakota and Montana and the origin of the Dermatemys mawii lineage. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 85: 125–142.

Lee, J.C. 1996. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatan Peninsula. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 500 pp.

Lee, R.C. 1969. Observing the tortuga blanca. International Turtle and Tortoise Society Journal 3: 20-26.

Marlin, J. and H. Barrett. 2014. Endangered Turtles Find a Home at the New Hicatee Conservation and Research Center in Belize. Turtle Survival, 53-54.

Marlin, J. 2013. Local Belize Businesses Step Up to Support Hicatee Conservation. Turtle Survival, 47-48.

Marlin, J. 2012. Hicatee Conservation Research Center Takes Shape in Belize. Turtle Survival, 46-47.

Mendyk, R. W. and B. Eisele. 2016. Preliminary notes on caudal prehensility in the Hicatee, Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae). Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (4): 1026-1029

Mendyk, R. W., and D. C. Smith. 2016. Nature Notes. Dermatemys mawii Gray, 1847. Longevity. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 477–478.

Mittermeier, R. A. 1970. Turtles in Central American markets. Int. Turtle Tortoise Soc. J, 4, 20-26

Moll, D. 1986. Food habits and evidence of spring bank nesting in Belizean Dermatemys mawei. Abstracts of the Joint Meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and Herpetologists’ League 97. Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield.

Moll, D. 1986. The distribution, status, and level of exploitation of the freshwater turtle Dermatemys mawii in Belize, Central America. Biological Conservation 35: 87-96.

Moll, D. 1986. Food habitats and evidences of spring bank nesting in Belizean Dermatemys mawii. In Joint Meeting of Amphibians y Reptiles and the Herpetologist League. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. St. Louis, Missouri, EEUU. & JL García-Calderón (eds.). Las aguas interiores de México: Conceptos y Casos. AGT, México, DF, México (p. 97)

Moll, D. 1989. Food and feeding behavior of the turtle, Dermatemys mawii, in Belize. Journal of Herpetology 23(4): 445-447.

Morales, J. 2009. Estimación de diferencias morfométricas de la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii) a lo largo de su distribución. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología–CONCYT-Guatemala

Platt, S.G. And Rainwater, T.R. 2011. Predation by neotropical otters (Lontra longicaudis) on turtles in Belize. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin 28:4–10.

Polisar, J. 1990. An inventory of the turtle fauna of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area: a preliminary report. Technical report submitted to Programme for Belize, Belize City, Belize.

Polisar, J. 1990. Exploitation and management of the Central America River Turtle, Dermatemys mawii. Belize. Tortoise & Turtles, 5, 12-13

Polisar, J. 1992. Reproductive biology and exploitation of the Central American River Turtle Dermatemys mawii in Belize. M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Polisar, J. 1994. New legislation for the protection and management of Dermatemys mawii in Belize, Central America. Herpetological Review 25(2): 47-48.

Polisar, J. 1995. River Turtle reproductive demography and exploitation patterns in Belize: implications for management. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 4(1): 10-19.

Polisar, J. 1996. Reproductive biology of a flood-season nesting freshwater turtle of the northern Neotropics: Dermatemys mawii in Belize. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(1): 13-25.

Polisar, J. 1997. Effects of exploitation on Dermatemys mawii populations in northern Belize and conservation strategies for rural riverside villages. In: Van Abbema, J. (Ed.). Proceedings:
Conservation, Restoration, and Management of Tortoises and Turtles: An International Conference. New York: New York Turtle and Tortoise Society and the WCS Turtle
Recovery Program, pp. 441–443.

Polisar, J. and Horwich, R.H. 1994. Conservation of the large economically important river turtle Dermatemys mawi in Belize. Conservation Biology 8(2): 338-340.

Quiñonez, M. 2010. Hemoparásitos de la tortuga blanca centroamericana (Dermatemys mawii) del parque Nacional Laguna del Tigre, Petén. Tesis de Licenciatura en Medicina Veterinaria. USAC. Guatemala. 58 pp

Rainwater, T.,  T. Pop, O. Cal, S. Platt and R. Hudson. 2010. Catalyzing Conservation Action in Belize for Central America’s River Turtle. Turtle Survival, 79-82.

Rainwater, T.R., Pop, T., Cal, O., Platt, S.G., And Hudson, R. 2010. A recent survey of the Critically Endangered Central American river turtle in Belize. Final report to the Belize Fisheries Department, Belize City, Belize.

Rainwater, T., J. Marlin, R. Hudson and S. Platt. 2011 Forging Partnerships in Belize to Protect the Hicatee: A Team Building Approach to Conservation. Turtle Survival, 82-85 

Rainwater, T. R., Pop, T., Cal, O., Garel, A., Platt, S. G., & Hudson, R. 2012. A recent countrywide status survey of the critically endangered Central American river turtle (Dermatemys mawii) in Belize. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 11(1), 97-107

Rangel Mendoza, J. A., Macías, B., Ruiz, E. Z., & Weber, C. E. 2007. Estudio hematológico en poblaciones silvestres y cautivas de tortuga blanca Dermatemys mawii (No. TE/598.13097263 R3)

Rangel-Mendoza, J., Weber, M., Zenteno-Ruiz, C. E., López-Luna, M. A., & Barba-Macías, E. 2009. Hematology and serum biochemistry comparison in wild and captive Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) in Tabasco, Mexico. Research in veterinary science, 87(2), 313-318

Rangel-Mendoza, J. A., Sánchez-González, I. A., López-Luna, M. A., & Weber, M. 2014. Health and aquatic environment assessment of captive Central American river turtles, Dermatemys mawii, at two farms in Tabasco, Mexico. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 13(1), 96-109


Smith, D. 2015. Central American River Turtle Dermatemys mawii. North American Regional Studbook 2015. North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, North Carolina, United States. 16 pp.

Smith, G. The Population Structure of the Central American River Turtle, Dermatemys mawii, of the Sibun River Between Gracie Rock and Ferguson Bank

Sokoloff, D. 1935. A New Trematode (Schizamphistomoides tabascencis n. sp.) from the Intestine of the Fresh Water Turtle, Dermatemys mawii Gray. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 54(2), 135-137

Stafford, P.J. and Meyer, J.R. 2000. A Guide to the Reptiles of Belize. San Diego: Academic Press, 356 pp.

Turtle Conservation Coalition [Rhodin, A.G.J., Walde, A.D., Horne, B.D., van Dijk, P.P., Blanck, T., and Hudson, R. (Eds.)]. 2011. Turtles in Trouble: The World’s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles—2011. Lunenburg, MA: IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, Turtle Conservation Fund, Turtle Survival Alliance, Turtle Conservancy, Chelonian Research Foundation,
Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, and San Diego Zoo Global, 54 pp.

Silvestre, M. D. F. 2007. Evaluación de hábitat de la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii, Gray 1847) en humedales de la Cuenca baja del río Papaloapan, Veracruz

University of Michigan. 1984. Dermatemys River Turtle: potential model for sustainable use.  Endangered Species Update, 1:4

Ureña, C. 2007. Evaluación de hábitat de la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii, Gray 1847) en humedales de la cuenca baja del río Papalopan, Veracruz. Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias. Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Veracruz, México. 86 pp.

Viveros-León, P. (1996). Uso tradicional y estatus de la tortuga blanca de río (Dermatemys mawii) en el complejo lagunar Guerrero, Quintana Roo, México (Doctoral dissertation, Tesis de maestría. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur

Vogt, R. C. 1992. Ecología y estatus de la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii). Reporte Técnico. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México

Vogt, R.C. and Flores-Villela, O. 1992. Effects of incubation temperature on sex determination in a community of neotropical freshwater turtles in southern México. Herpetologica 48(3): 265-270.

Vogt, R. C., & Flores-Villela, O. A. 1992. Aspectos de la ecología de la tortuga blanca (Dermatemys mawii) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Montes Azules. Reserva de la Biosfera Montes Azules, Selva Lacandona: Investigación para su conservación., 221-231

Vogt, R. C., J. R. Polisar, D. Moll, and G. Gonzalez-Porter. 2011. Dermatemys mawii Gray 1847 – Central American River Turtle, Tortuge Blanca, Hickatee. Pp. 058.1–058.12 In Rhodin, A. G. J., P. C. H. Pritchard, P. P. van Dijk, R. A. Saumure, K. A. Buhlmann, J. B. Iverson, and R. A. Mittermeier (Eds.), Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise
and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5. Chelonian Research Foundation, Lunenburg, Maryland, United States.

Zenteno Ruiz, C. E., Barba Macias, E., Bello-Gutiérrez, J., & Ochoa-Gaona, S. 2010. Caracterización espacio-temporal del hábitat y presencia de Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae) en la cuenca del Grijalva-Usumacinta, Tabasco, México. Revista de Biología Tropical, 58(4), 1247-1260

Zenteno, R. C. E. 2011. Análisis espacio-temporal del hábitat y presencia de Dermatemys mawii (Gray, 1847) en la Reserva de la Biósfera Pantanos de Centla (Doctoral dissertation, Tesis de Doctorado en Ciencias en Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur)